A publication of the Heinrich BΓΆll Foundation sheds light on the causes, developments and influence of misinformation, disinformation and malinformation on democracy. Because “Democracy is not an automatic process. It must be fought for, filled with life and renewed – and must constantly face new challenges”.

Besides a historical classification, a current situation analysis and tips on how to combat misinformation, disinformation and malinformation, the definitions of these three types of information are particularly interesting and helpful:

  • disinformation: Incorrect and purposefully produced information in order to harm a person, social group, organisation or country.
  • Misinformation: Incorrect information, but not produced with the intention of causing harm.
  • Mal-information: Truth-based information that is used to harm a person, organisation or country.

More information and the brochure for download can be found here: